Lesson 34 – RFID Module

Setup

  1. Before you start working with any of the tutorials in this series please make sure you have completed the following tasks –
    1. Downloaded and installed the Arduino IDE.
    2. Are able to connect to the Arduino IDE from your computer
    3. Have been successful in uploading a simple (e.g. Blink LED’s) example programs (that comes with the Arduino IDE) onto your Arduino UNO board
  2. If you haven’t installed the Arduino IDE please head back to the first tutorial and make sure you’ve gone through each of the steps involved.
  3. Once you’ve sorted all of the above you are ready to move onto the next tutorial.

Tutorial

MF522-AN module adopts Philips MFRC522 original reader circuit chip design, easy to use, low cost, suitable for equipment development, development of advanced applications, the need for the user of RF card terminal design/production. It can be loaded directly into a variety of readers molds. Module uses voltage of 3.3V, through the SPI interface using simple few lines, it can be directly connected to any CPU board communication modules to guarantee stable and reliable work and reader distance.

Electrical Parameters:

  1. Current:13-26mA / DC 3.3V
  2. Idle current:10-13mA / DC 3.3V
  3. Sleep current: <80uA
  4. Peak current: <30mA
  5. Operating frequency: 13.56MHz
  6. Supported card types: mifare1 S50,mifare1 S70, mifare UltraLight, mifare Pro, mifare Desfire
  7. Dimensions: 40mm * 60mm
  8. Environmental operating temperature: -20-80 degrees Celsius
  9. Environment storage temperature: -40-85 degrees Celsius
  10. Relative humidity: 5% -95%

Circuit Connection:

This module adopts the IIC test method, so we only need to connect ‘SDA’ to Arduino A4, ‘SCL’ to A5, ‘+’ to VCC and ‘-’ to GND as follows:

Here’s the hardware you will need for the tutorials –

  1. Arduino Board x 1
  2. 1 x RFID module
  3. breadboard jumper wire x 5

You will find fritzing diagrams below outlining circuit connections for both the Arduino Uno and the Arduino Mega 2560.

 

Let’s have a look at the code for the tutorial.

Please note –

  1. If you want to use MEGA 2560 R3, please in the code change  const int chipSelectPin = 10;//if the controller is UNO,328,168  into const int chipSelectPin = 53;//if the controller is MEGA 2560
  2. The line #include should read #include <SPI.h>

#include 
#define	uchar	unsigned char
#define	uint	unsigned int
#define MAX_LEN 16
const int chipSelectPin = 10;//if the controller is UNO,328,168
const int NRSTPD = 5;

//MF522command word
#define PCD_IDLE              0x00               //NO action;concel current command
#define PCD_AUTHENT           0x0E               //verify key
#define PCD_RECEIVE           0x08               //receive data
#define PCD_TRANSMIT          0x04               //send data
#define PCD_TRANSCEIVE        0x0C               //receive and send data
#define PCD_RESETPHASE        0x0F               //reset
#define PCD_CALCCRC           0x03               //CRC calculation

//Mifare_One Card command word
#define PICC_REQIDL           0x26               // line-tracking area is dormant #define PICC_REQALL           0x52                     //line-tracking area is interfered
#define PICC_ANTICOLL         0x93               //Anti collision
#define PICC_SElECTTAG        0x93               //choose cards
#define PICC_AUTHENT1A        0x60               //Verify A key
#define PICC_AUTHENT1B        0x61               //Verify B key
#define PICC_READ             0x30               // Reader Module 
#define PICC_WRITE            0xA0               // letter block
#define PICC_DECREMENT        0xC0               
#define PICC_INCREMENT        0xC1               
#define PICC_RESTORE          0xC2               //Transfer data to buffer
#define PICC_TRANSFER         0xB0               //Save buffer data
#define PICC_HALT             0x50               //Dormancy


//MF522 Error code returned when communication
#define MI_OK                 0
#define MI_NOTAGERR           1
#define MI_ERR                2


//------------------MFRC522 Register---------------
//Page 0:Command and Status
#define     Reserved00            0x00    
#define     CommandReg            0x01    
#define     CommIEnReg            0x02    
#define     DivlEnReg             0x03    
#define     CommIrqReg            0x04    
#define     DivIrqReg             0x05
#define     ErrorReg              0x06    
#define     Status1Reg            0x07    
#define     Status2Reg            0x08    
#define     FIFODataReg           0x09
#define     FIFOLevelReg          0x0A
#define     WaterLevelReg         0x0B
#define     ControlReg            0x0C
#define     BitFramingReg         0x0D
#define     CollReg               0x0E
#define     Reserved01            0x0F
//Page 1:Command     
#define     Reserved10            0x10
#define     ModeReg               0x11
#define     TxModeReg             0x12
#define     RxModeReg             0x13
#define     TxControlReg          0x14
#define     TxAutoReg             0x15
#define     TxSelReg              0x16
#define     RxSelReg              0x17
#define     RxThresholdReg        0x18
#define     DemodReg              0x19
#define     Reserved11            0x1A
#define     Reserved12            0x1B
#define     MifareReg             0x1C
#define     Reserved13            0x1D
#define     Reserved14            0x1E
#define     SerialSpeedReg        0x1F
//Page 2:CFG    
#define     Reserved20            0x20  
#define     CRCResultRegM         0x21
#define     CRCResultRegL         0x22
#define     Reserved21            0x23
#define     ModWidthReg           0x24
#define     Reserved22            0x25
#define     RFCfgReg              0x26
#define     GsNReg                0x27
#define     CWGsPReg	          0x28
#define     ModGsPReg             0x29
#define     TModeReg              0x2A
#define     TPrescalerReg         0x2B
#define     TReloadRegH           0x2C
#define     TReloadRegL           0x2D
#define     TCounterValueRegH     0x2E
#define     TCounterValueRegL     0x2F
//Page 3:TestRegister     
#define     Reserved30            0x30
#define     TestSel1Reg           0x31
#define     TestSel2Reg           0x32
#define     TestPinEnReg          0x33
#define     TestPinValueReg       0x34
#define     TestBusReg            0x35
#define     AutoTestReg           0x36
#define     VersionReg            0x37
#define     AnalogTestReg         0x38
#define     TestDAC1Reg           0x39  
#define     TestDAC2Reg           0x3A   
#define     TestADCReg            0x3B   
#define     Reserved31            0x3C   
#define     Reserved32            0x3D   
#define     Reserved33            0x3E   
#define     Reserved34			  0x3F
uchar serNum[5];
uchar  writeDate[16] ={'T', 'e', 'n', 'g', ' ', 'B', 'o', 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,0};
uchar sectorKeyA[16][16] = {{0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF},
                             {0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF},
                             {0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF},
                            };
 uchar sectorNewKeyA[16][16] = {{0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF},
                                {0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xff,0x07,0x80,0x69, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF},
                                {0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xff,0x07,0x80,0x69, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF},
                               };

void setup() {                
   Serial.begin(9600);                       // RFID reader SOUT pin connected to Serial RX pin at 2400bps 
 // start the SPI library:
  SPI.begin();
  
  pinMode(chipSelectPin,OUTPUT);             // Set digital pin 10 as OUTPUT to connect it to the RFID /ENABLE pin 
    digitalWrite(chipSelectPin, LOW);          // Activate the RFID reader
  pinMode(NRSTPD,OUTPUT);               // Set digital pin 10 , Not Reset and Power-down
    digitalWrite(NRSTPD, HIGH);

  MFRC522_Init();  
}

void loop()
{
  	uchar i,tmp;
	uchar status;
        uchar str[MAX_LEN];
        uchar RC_size;
        uchar blockAddr;	//Select the address of the operation 0~63


		// searching card, return card type
		status = MFRC522_Request(PICC_REQIDL, str);	
		if (status == MI_OK)
		{
		}

		
		status = MFRC522_Anticoll(str);
		memcpy(serNum, str, 5);
		if (status == MI_OK)
		{
                        Serial.println("The card's number is  : ");
			Serial.print(serNum[0],BIN);
			Serial.print(serNum[1],BIN);
			Serial.print(serNum[2],BIN);
			Serial.print(serNum[3],BIN);
			Serial.print(serNum[4],BIN);
                        Serial.println(" ");
		}

		// select card, return card capacity
		RC_size = MFRC522_SelectTag(serNum);
		if (RC_size != 0)
		{}
                
		// write data card
		blockAddr = 7;		// data block 7		
		status = MFRC522_Auth(PICC_AUTHENT1A, blockAddr, sectorKeyA[blockAddr/4], serNum);	// authentication
		if (status == MI_OK)
		{
			// write data
			status = MFRC522_Write(blockAddr, sectorNewKeyA[blockAddr/4]);
                        Serial.print("set the new card password, and can modify the data of the Sector: ");
                        Serial.print(blockAddr/4,DEC);
   
                        // write data
                        blockAddr = blockAddr - 3 ; 
                        status = MFRC522_Write(blockAddr, writeDate);
                        if(status == MI_OK)
                        {
                           Serial.println("OK!");
                        }
		}

		// read card
		blockAddr = 7;		// data block 7		
		status = MFRC522_Auth(PICC_AUTHENT1A, blockAddr, sectorNewKeyA[blockAddr/4], serNum);	// authentication
		if (status == MI_OK)
		{
			// read data
                        blockAddr = blockAddr - 3 ; 
                        status = MFRC522_Read(blockAddr, str);
			if (status == MI_OK)
			{
                                Serial.println("Read from the card ,the data is : ");
				for (i=0; i<16; i++)
				{
              			      Serial.print(str[i]);
				}
                                Serial.println(" ");
			}
		}
                Serial.println(" ");
		MFRC522_Halt();			// command card to enter standby mode              
          
}

void Write_MFRC522(uchar addr, uchar val)
{
	digitalWrite(chipSelectPin, LOW);

	SPI.transfer((addr<<1)&0x7E);	
	SPI.transfer(val);
	
	digitalWrite(chipSelectPin, HIGH);
}


uchar Read_MFRC522(uchar addr)
{
	uchar val;

	digitalWrite(chipSelectPin, LOW);

	// address format: 1XXXXXX0
	SPI.transfer(((addr<<1)&0x7E) | 0x80);	
	val =SPI.transfer(0x00);
	
	digitalWrite(chipSelectPin, HIGH);
	
	return val;	
}


void SetBitMask(uchar reg, uchar mask)  
{
    uchar tmp;
    tmp = Read_MFRC522(reg);
    Write_MFRC522(reg, tmp | mask);  // set bit mask
}



void ClearBitMask(uchar reg, uchar mask)  
{
    uchar tmp;
    tmp = Read_MFRC522(reg);
    Write_MFRC522(reg, tmp & (~mask));  // clear bit mask
} 



void AntennaOn(void)
{
	uchar temp;

	temp = Read_MFRC522(TxControlReg);
	if (!(temp & 0x03))
	{
		SetBitMask(TxControlReg, 0x03);
	}
}

void AntennaOff(void)
{
	ClearBitMask(TxControlReg, 0x03);
}

void MFRC522_Reset(void)
{
    Write_MFRC522(CommandReg, PCD_RESETPHASE);
}

void MFRC522_Init(void)
{
	digitalWrite(NRSTPD,HIGH);

	MFRC522_Reset();
	 	
	//Timer: TPrescaler*TreloadVal/6.78MHz = 24ms
    Write_MFRC522(TModeReg, 0x8D);		//Tauto=1; f(Timer) = 6.78MHz/TPreScaler
    Write_MFRC522(TPrescalerReg, 0x3E);	//TModeReg[3..0] + TPrescalerReg
    Write_MFRC522(TReloadRegL, 30);           
    Write_MFRC522(TReloadRegH, 0);
	
	Write_MFRC522(TxAutoReg, 0x40);		//100%ASK
	Write_MFRC522(ModeReg, 0x3D);		//CRC initial value


	AntennaOn();		// open antenna
}
uchar MFRC522_Request(uchar reqMode, uchar *TagType)
{
	uchar status;  
	uint backBits;			// received data bits

	Write_MFRC522(BitFramingReg, 0x07);		//TxLastBists = BitFramingReg[2..0]	???
	
	TagType[0] = reqMode;
	status = MFRC522_ToCard(PCD_TRANSCEIVE, TagType, 1, TagType, &backBits);

	if ((status != MI_OK) || (backBits != 0x10))
	{    
		status = MI_ERR;
	}
   
	return status;
}

uchar MFRC522_ToCard(uchar command, uchar *sendData, uchar sendLen, uchar *backData, uint *backLen)
{
    uchar status = MI_ERR;
    uchar irqEn = 0x00;
    uchar waitIRq = 0x00;
    uchar lastBits;
    uchar n;
    uint i;

    switch (command)
    {
        case PCD_AUTHENT:		// card key authentication
		{
			irqEn = 0x12;
			waitIRq = 0x10;
			break;
		}
		case PCD_TRANSCEIVE:	// send data in FIFO
		{
			irqEn = 0x77;
			waitIRq = 0x30;
			break;
		}
		default:
			break;
    }
   
    Write_MFRC522(CommIEnReg, irqEn|0x80);	// Allow interrupt request
    ClearBitMask(CommIrqReg, 0x80);			// clear bits of all interrupt request
    SetBitMask(FIFOLevelReg, 0x80);			//FlushBuffer=1, FIFO initialization

    
	Write_MFRC522(CommandReg, PCD_IDLE);	//NO action; cancel current command	???

	// write data into FIFO
    for (i=0; i<sendLen; i++) { Write_MFRC522(FIFODataReg, sendData[i]); } // execute command Write_MFRC522(CommandReg, command); if (command == PCD_TRANSCEIVE) { SetBitMask(BitFramingReg, 0x80); //StartSend=1,transmission of data starts } // wait for the completion of data receiving i = 2000; // adjust i according to clock frequency, maximum waiting time of operating M1 is 25ms ??? do { //CommIrqReg[7..0] //Set1 TxIRq RxIRq IdleIRq HiAlerIRq LoAlertIRq ErrIRq TimerIRq n = Read_MFRC522(CommIrqReg); i--; } while ((i!=0) && !(n&0x01) && !(n&waitIRq)); ClearBitMask(BitFramingReg, 0x80); //StartSend=0 if (i != 0) { if(!(Read_MFRC522(ErrorReg) & 0x1B)) //BufferOvfl Collerr CRCErr ProtecolErr { status = MI_OK; if (n & irqEn & 0x01) { status = MI_NOTAGERR; //?? } if (command == PCD_TRANSCEIVE) { n = Read_MFRC522(FIFOLevelReg); lastBits = Read_MFRC522(ControlReg) & 0x07; if (lastBits) { *backLen = (n-1)*8 + lastBits; } else { *backLen = n*8; } if (n == 0) { n = 1; } if (n > MAX_LEN)
                {   
					n = MAX_LEN;   
				}
				
				// read data which FIFO received
                for (i=0; i<n; i++)
                {   
					backData[i] = Read_MFRC522(FIFODataReg);    
				}
            }
        }
        else
        {   
			status = MI_ERR;  
		}
        
    }
	
    //SetBitMask(ControlReg,0x80);           //timer stops
    //Write_MFRC522(CommandReg, PCD_IDLE); 

    return status;
}

uchar MFRC522_Anticoll(uchar *serNum)
{
    uchar status;
    uchar i;
	uchar serNumCheck=0;
    uint unLen;
    
	Write_MFRC522(BitFramingReg, 0x00);		//TxLastBists = BitFramingReg[2..0]
 
    serNum[0] = PICC_ANTICOLL;
    serNum[1] = 0x20;
    status = MFRC522_ToCard(PCD_TRANSCEIVE, serNum, 2, serNum, &unLen);

    if (status == MI_OK)
	{
		// verify card sequence number
		for (i=0; i<4; i++)
		{   
		 	serNumCheck ^= serNum[i];
		}
		if (serNumCheck != serNum[i])
		{   
			status = MI_ERR;    
		}
    }

    //SetBitMask(CollReg, 0x80);		//ValuesAfterColl=1

    return status;
} 

void CalulateCRC(uchar *pIndata, uchar len, uchar *pOutData)
{
    uchar i, n;

    ClearBitMask(DivIrqReg, 0x04);			//CRCIrq = 0
    SetBitMask(FIFOLevelReg, 0x80);			// clear FIFO pointer
    //Write_MFRC522(CommandReg, PCD_IDLE);

	// write data into FIFO	
    for (i=0; i<len; i++)
    {   
		Write_MFRC522(FIFODataReg, *(pIndata+i));   
	}
    Write_MFRC522(CommandReg, PCD_CALCCRC);

	// wait for the completion of CRC calculation
    i = 0xFF;
    do 
    {
        n = Read_MFRC522(DivIrqReg);
        i--;
    }
    while ((i!=0) && !(n&0x04));			//CRCIrq = 1

	// read CRC calculation result
    pOutData[0] = Read_MFRC522(CRCResultRegL);
    pOutData[1] = Read_MFRC522(CRCResultRegM);
}

uchar MFRC522_SelectTag(uchar *serNum)
{
    uchar i;
	uchar status;
	uchar size;
    uint recvBits;
    uchar buffer[9]; 

	//ClearBitMask(Status2Reg, 0x08);			//MFCrypto1On=0

    buffer[0] = PICC_SElECTTAG;
    buffer[1] = 0x70;
    for (i=0; i<5; i++)
    {
    	buffer[i+2] = *(serNum+i);
    }
	CalulateCRC(buffer, 7, &buffer[7]);		//??
    status = MFRC522_ToCard(PCD_TRANSCEIVE, buffer, 9, buffer, &recvBits);
    
    if ((status == MI_OK) && (recvBits == 0x18))
    {   
		size = buffer[0]; 
	}
    else
    {   
		size = 0;    
	}

    return size;
}

uchar MFRC522_Auth(uchar authMode, uchar BlockAddr, uchar *Sectorkey, uchar *serNum)
{
    uchar status;
    uint recvBits;
    uchar i;
	uchar buff[12]; 

	// Verification commands + block address + sector password + card sequence number
    buff[0] = authMode;
    buff[1] = BlockAddr;
    for (i=0; i<6; i++)
    {    
		buff[i+2] = *(Sectorkey+i);   
	}
    for (i=0; i<4; i++)
    {    
		buff[i+8] = *(serNum+i);   
	}
    status = MFRC522_ToCard(PCD_AUTHENT, buff, 12, buff, &recvBits);

    if ((status != MI_OK) || (!(Read_MFRC522(Status2Reg) & 0x08)))
    {   
		status = MI_ERR;   
	}
    
    return status;
}

uchar MFRC522_Read(uchar blockAddr, uchar *recvData)
{
    uchar status;
    uint unLen;

    recvData[0] = PICC_READ;
    recvData[1] = blockAddr;
    CalulateCRC(recvData,2, &recvData[2]);
    status = MFRC522_ToCard(PCD_TRANSCEIVE, recvData, 4, recvData, &unLen);

    if ((status != MI_OK) || (unLen != 0x90))
    {
        status = MI_ERR;
    }
    
    return status;
}

uchar MFRC522_Write(uchar blockAddr, uchar *writeData)
{
    uchar status;
    uint recvBits;
    uchar i;
	uchar buff[18]; 
    
    buff[0] = PICC_WRITE;
    buff[1] = blockAddr;
    CalulateCRC(buff, 2, &buff[2]);
    status = MFRC522_ToCard(PCD_TRANSCEIVE, buff, 4, buff, &recvBits);

    if ((status != MI_OK) || (recvBits != 4) || ((buff[0] & 0x0F) != 0x0A))
    {   
		status = MI_ERR;   
	}
        
    if (status == MI_OK)
    {
        for (i=0; i<16; i++)		// write 16Byte data into FIFO
        {    
        	buff[i] = *(writeData+i);   
        }
        CalulateCRC(buff, 16, &buff[16]);
        status = MFRC522_ToCard(PCD_TRANSCEIVE, buff, 18, buff, &recvBits);
        
		if ((status != MI_OK) || (recvBits != 4) || ((buff[0] & 0x0F) != 0x0A))
        {   
			status = MI_ERR;   
		}
    }
    
    return status;
}

void MFRC522_Halt(void)
{
	uchar status;
    uint unLen;
    uchar buff[4]; 

    buff[0] = PICC_HALT;
    buff[1] = 0;
    CalulateCRC(buff, 2, &buff[2]);
 
    status = MFRC522_ToCard(PCD_TRANSCEIVE, buff, 4, buff,&unLen);
}
	 

In this experiment, when the IC card approaches, RFID module will write data to the IC card and read the card’s data, you can see it shown on the monitor window.


Prerequisites

This development track requires an investment a bit of hardware. See below for details –

  1. Arduino IDE –
    1. You will need to download and install the Arduino development IDE.
    2. The approach to installation, configuration, setup of the Arduino IDE is covered in our tutorials.
  2. Arduino Uno, Sensors, etc. –
    1. You will need to purchase the Super Learning Kit for Arduino from OzToyLib.
    2. The Arduino Advent kit has all the sensors you need to perform the tutorials covered in this development track.
    3. If you do not have an Arduino Uno or Arduino Mega 2560 you might want to head over to Arduino boards and pick one up now.

The Super Learning Kit for the Arduino kit has all the sensors you need to perform the tutorials covered in this development track.


About the Super Learning Kit for Arduino

The Super Learning Starter Kit for Arduino comes packed with ~35+ different electronic bits (Sensors, LEDs, switches, LCD, servo, etc.) and can be purchased with either the Keyestudio UNO R3 or the Keyestudio Mega 2560 board. The Keyestudio Arduino boards can be used to interface with the different electronic bits i.e. sensors, LED’s, switches, servos, etc. included in the starter kit. The starter kit for the Keyestudio Uno R3 offers a great opportunity to explore the world of electronics using the Arduino Development Platform. Interact with the real world through the various sensors, create innovative projects, learn how to program the micro:bit to read data from the sensors and perform certain actions. The starter kit for the Arduino is a great way to dive into the awesome world of electronics and get started with your own STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) learning journey.

The Arduino advanced study kit walks you through the basics of using the Arduino in a hands-on way. You’ll learn the fundamentals of electronics and working on the Arduino through building several creative projects. The kit includes a selection of the most common and useful electronic components with a book of 32 projects. Starting the basics of electronics, to more complex projects, the kit will get you interacting with the physical world using sensor and actuators. Along with the kit you get access to detailed tutorials and wiring diagrams.

You can purchase the Super Learning Kit for Arduino from OzToyLib.


About the Arduino UNO

The Arduino UNO is the most used and documented board of the whole Arduino family and very easy to setup, play with. The Arduino UNO is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328 . The Arduino UNO has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz ceramic resonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. Here’s a listing of the some of the features of the Arduino UNO –

  1. Microcontroller: ATmega328
  2. Operating Voltage: 5V
  3. Input Voltage (recommended): 7-12V
  4. Input Voltage (limits): 6-20V
  5. Digital I/O Pins: 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
  6. Analog Input Pins: 6
  7. DC Current per I/O Pin: 40 mA
  8. DC Current for 3.3V Pin: 50 mA
  9. Flash Memory: 32 KB of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader
  10. SRAM: 2 KB (ATmega328)
  11. EEPROM: 1 KB (ATmega328)
  12. Clock Speed: 16 MHz

Arduino is an open-source, prototyping platform and its simplicity makes it ideal for hobbyists to use as well as professionals. The Arduino UNO contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Arduino UNO differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it features the Atmega8U2 microcontroller chip programmed as a USB-to-serial converter. “Uno” means one in Italian and is named to mark the upcoming release of Arduino 1.0. The Arduino Uno and version 1.0 will be the reference versions of Arduno, moving forward. The Uno is the latest in a series of USB Arduino boards, and the reference model for the Arduino platform.

You can read more about the Arduino here – www.arduino.cc.

Questions